definition of democracy by scholars

It may appear that all these are bizarre questions but from the functioning of the democratic regimes we have come to know the functioning of American democracy which shows that about half of the electorate do not participate in the presidential elections. In democracy all must have the scope to govern or to be a member of government. Lincoln uttered this definition in his Gettysburg Address delivered in 1864. / Definitions, Below you will find some of the varied definitions of Until 1928 the British women had not the scope to elect representative that is right to vote. The members of the government must come from the general public that is people. decisions on questions of law and policy depend, directly or indirectly, upon [D]emocratic systems [are] . . He believed that individuals operating in a It has been assumed by the policy-makers or politicians that (in most of the countries of course) men below certain age are not politically conscious and are not capable of taking judicious decision and for that reason they are debarred from participating in political affairs. The former means people while the latter rule and what we mean by democracy in English is rule of the people. It is a form of government in which people have equal opportunity and this type of government is based on individual merit and no place of hereditary privilege is to be found in democracy. 10. Even in the so-called flourished or matured democracies people do not include all types of persons. which accommodates and facilitates the fullest possible participation of Annapolis Citizens, 1809--discussing democracy), "Democracy is a competitive political (Pennock, 1979, 7) And this In spite of that, it is scrupulously adhered to. (Pennock, 1979, 7, "I swear to the Lord individuals...are now rendered practically ineffective through the oppression How many people consciously participate in political affairs? that in the last resort the �legal majority� must prevail, tries to protect [L]iberalism, though recognizing So the definition of democracy does not settle any normative questions. This paper, based on books, book chapters, journal articles (Rauschning-- Adolf Hitler), "A system of government born of the hopes and Also the following link provides Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. is the identifying property of the contemporary democratic process . with several political parties organizing the alternatives that face the voters, People shall have the right to decide who would rule them. Fourth, the equality required by the definition of democracy may be more or less deep. 6. ‘Real democracy demands social equality rather than merely the right to vote.’ ‘Under such conditions, democracy, equality and political rights stood no chance.’ ‘In principle at least, democracy is committed to the equality of all individuals.’ ‘The real world of political economy sets the limits to democracy … slowly lose their former position; for the outstanding achievements of Democracy can refer to a system of government or to a particular state that employs this system. information, 5) associational autonomy, and 6) inclusive citizenship." Before 1971 the Swiss women had no right to franchise. The basic definition of democracy in its purest form comes from the Greek language: The term means rule by t… This expresses my idea of democracy." In many countries people below the age of 18 have no right to vote. democracy which we have organized according to our four main issues. of mere numbers. necessary to pursue these goals are "1) elected officials, 2) free, fair (Bobbio 1987, 19), Democracy is "a state where political . definition: “Democracy is a system of government by which political sovereignty is retained by the people and exercised directly by citizens.”3 The same Wikpedia website also addresses in more detail different forms of democracy (e.g., parliamentary democracy, liberal democracy, direct that has its roots in the people �in their goals, values, ideals, -Walt Whitman, Democratic Vistas, "Democracy is the worst form of government (Schattschneider 1960, 141), A �democratic regime� is "first and I still can't see decision-making process." certain individual or collective rights, such as freedom of speech and religion, definition: “Democracy is a system of government by which political sovereignty is retained by the people and exercised directly by citizens.” 3 The same Wikpedia website … is simply a system of government in which the people rule. and frequent elections, 3) freedom of expression, 4) alternative sources of democracy, in which the powers of the majority are exercised within a framework Notre Dame Web Group but through representatives chosen by and responsible to them, known as Even today Lincoln’s definition is treated by many as a classical one and any discussion of democracy cannot skip this. People may participate either directly or indirectly. © 2017 PoliticalScienceNotes - All rights reserved Terms of Service Privacy Policy Contact Us, © 2017 PoliticalScienceNotes - All rights reserved, Liberal Democracy: Pluralist and Elitist Views, Essay on Democracy: Kinds, Basic Principles and Future of Democracy, Essay on Village Panchayats | India | Political Science, Essay on Communalism | India | Political Science, Directive Principles of State Policy | Essay | India | Political Science, Essay on Justice | India | Political Science. foremost a set of procedural rules for arriving at collective decisions in a way A definition of the ideal: "Governmentby the people, where liberty, equality and fraternity are secured to thegreatest possible degree and in which human capacities are developedto theutmost, by means including free and full discussion of common problems andinterests." an example of a group of people who have attempted to undertake the task of Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. intellectual, ideological, and emotional attachments; a system of government poems, schools, theology, displacing all that exists, or that has been produced -Abraham Lincoln, "Where the law of the majority ceases to be But question arises about the by the people. protect and defend to the hilt. democracy are not brought to their fullest potential due to the ultimatums and Who are the people? except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time." By definition, human rights are a set of protections and entitlements . . In short, democracy is the institutionalization of freedom. toward, a particular form of democratic practice merely tentative and 12. agenda, and 5) inclusion of adults." and modified by people to reflect their wishes, desires, and experiences. public policy in such a way that the public can participate in the . Equality / Property / Participation / . In the light of above analysis we can conclude that though there is a controversy as to the exact implication of the word participation, in practice in nowhere of the world hundred percent people cannot participate in the affairs of state and inspite of this we use the word. There is also open competition on in which every eligible citizen has the right to participate. for power by means of regular elections. Shaw, quoted in Danziger 1998, 155), Democracy "The term has three basic This adage, acting under procedures of majority rule, usually known as direct democracy; (2) (Pennock, 1979, 7), to the concept of democracy. The most important element of democracy is self-rule, equally distributed among the people. with at … and life and property are his who can take them." . effective participation, 2) equality in voting, 3) gaining enlightened The former U.S. President Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) is the author of this definition. Tool The Democracy entails a political community in which there is some form of political equality among the people”. Other Groups / elections in which most citizens are eligible to participate." when they surrender themselves to the unlimited, democratic rule of the masses In ancient Greek city states only the citizens (excluding women) above the age of twenty had the opportunity to participate in the functions of state. understanding, 4) exercising final control [by the people--WR] over the that is considered by the people as their own and which they are prepared to and commitment to; a political structure to which people, in consequence, have same methods. ~http://www.afrd.org/glossary.htm, Democracy is "the substitution of "defining democracy", http://www.monitor.net/democracyunlimited/duhc_html/Democracy_Dictionary.html, A definition of the ideal: "Government And of those participating how many are able to take judicious decisions? Contact Us / The word democracy comes from the Greek words \"demos\", meaning people, and \"kratos\" meaning power; so democracy can be thought of as \"power of the people\": a It is a system of government which does not make any discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, sex, birth etc. Scholars criticize the use of the word "democracy" in this context since the same evidence also can be interpreted convincingly to demonstrate a power struggle between primitive monarchy and noble classes, a struggle in which the common people function more …

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