pedagogical content knowledge shulman

Good teachers, according to Shulman, move beyond simply knowing their subject matter, and knowing how to teach; they transform the subject matter through teaching. “Pedagogical content knowledge is the category most likely to distinguish the understanding of the content specialist from that of the pedagogue” (p. 8). Carlsen, 1987; Grossman, Wilson, & Shulman, 1989; Gudmundsdottir, 1987a, 1987b; Gudmundsdottir & Shulman, 1987; Marks, 1990). He stated that teacher-training programs were separating the what (content) from the how (pedagogy) when preparing teachers for the field. Shulman defined pedagogical content knowledge as teachers’ interpretations and transformations of subject-matter knowledge in the context of facilitating student learning. Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Many government-initiated school reform programs in the United States focus substantially on the professional learning of teachers (see Hassel, 1999; NPEAT, 2003). Harvard Educational Review, 57 (1), 1-22. (MY THOUGHTS – But!!! One portion of Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge construct is knowing what makes a subject difficult and what preconceptions students are apt to bring. Pedagogical content knowledge is the integration of subject expertise and skilled teaching of that particular subject. Thus, what may have been an acceptable strategy for research became an unacceptable policy for teacher evaluation” (p. 7). He argues that teaching requires knowledge of the content, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of students. h�ԛi�\Ǖ��J~�`h��$Ғ8m-6奝�%�,�&�. This looks like a really complicated explanation, but honestly, it's not. “Teaching processes were observed and evaluated without reference to the adequacy or accuracy of the ideas transmitted. It is different from the knowledge of a disciplinary expert and from general pedagogical knowledge. $V���2�ˁ�(�A�q�r!�5���,��1~d�g�cqc�c�b{�l�p��3s��:F��&��h`��2�d�g�aZ . In Shulman’s view, pedagogical content knowledge is a form of practical knowledge that is used by teachers to guide their actions in highly contextualized classroom settings. (MY THOUGHTS – He is giving a rationale for content expertise for those who observe teaching practices.). Knowledge of educational contexts “…ranging from the workings of the group or classroom, the governance and financing of school districts, to the character of communities and cultures” (p. 8). During his early years at Stanford University, Shulman engaged in a longitudinal study of knowledge growth in teaching, funded by the resume sample harvard business school. He claims that these compose what he calls pedagogical content knowledge, and in this article, he articles what teachers should “know, do, understand, or profess” (p.4), something previously assumed and unarticulated in the rhetoric of educational reformers regarding the knowledge base of teaching. “While many characteristics of effective teachers exist, most of these dwell on the teacher’s management of the classroom. 13-14). 2 (Feb., 1986), pp. So they need to know what makes learning specific topics easy or difficult. The final source of the knowledge base is the least codified of all. “Wisdom of practice. Shulman (1987) calls this pedagogical content knowledge. (MY THOUGHTS – Can we create these descriptions of PSTs and developing expertise? He argues that teaching requires knowledge of the content, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge o “Perhaps the most enduring and powerful scholarly influences on teachers are those that enrich their images of the possible: their visions of what constitutes good education, ro what a well-educated youngster might look like if provided with appropriate opportunities and stimulation” (p. 10). (MY THOUGHTS – I could use that rationale for studying those who are learning to supervise.). (MY THOUGHTS – The scholar from the practitioner with the ideal blend in teacher education being scholarly practitioners?/ Blue Ribbon Panel Report requires teacher educators to be practitioners. (MY THOUGHTS – Rationale for contextually-specific knowledge or cultural knowledge). The term pedagogical content knowledge was coined by Lee Shulman in the mid-80s. Time!!! Educational Researcher, Vol. 1046 0 obj <> endobj “But, as we have wrestled with our cases, we have repeatedly asked hat teachers knew (or failed to know) that permitted them to teach in a particular manner” (p.5). Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-22. The concept of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) was developed by Lee Shulman in the mid-1980s. ), “But if a teacher has to ‘know the territory’ of teaching, then it is the landscape of such materials, institutions, organizations, and mechanisms that which he or she must be familiar” (p. 9). Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is the blending or amalgamation of pedagogy and subject content knowledge and was introduced by Shulman in the 80’s. Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. A second kind of content knowledge is pedagogical knowledge, which goes beyond knowledge of subject matter per se to the dimension of subject matter knowledge for teaching. ), 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, EDU105, Tampa, FL 33620  |  rebeccaburns@usf.edu, 20002009, 2003, constructivist, LambertL, leadership, principals, professional development, teacher leadership. He argued that, on top of subject knowledge and general pedagogical skills, teachers must know how to teach topics in ways that learners can understand. endstream endobj startxref These are ways of talking, showing, enacting, or otherwise representing ideas so that the unknowing can come to know, those without understanding can comprehend and discern, and the unskilled can become adept. It was first developed by Lee Shulman … Or of supervisors who develop expertise?). One of the more important tasks for the research community is to work with practitioners to develop codified representations of the practical pedagogical wisdom of able teachers” (p. 11). What are the implications for teaching policy and educational reform? Knowledge of educational ends, purposes, and values, and their philosophical and historical grounds (p. 8), (MY THOUGHTS – I could use this as a framework for Helen!). p9: Pedagogical Content Knowledge. One portion of Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge construct is knowing what makes a subject difficult and what preconceptions students are apt to bring.

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