A number of replicas and works inspired by it, both ancient and modern, have been made. In 391 AD, the Roman emperor Theodosius I banned participation in pagan cults and closed the temples. His workman Menon is said to have been at least partially responsible for his downfall: Plutarch states that Menon sat in the marketplace begging for protection in exchange for bringing charges against Phidias. The earliest of Phidias' works were dedications in memory of Marathon, celebrating the Greek victory. However, in 1958 the excavations undertaken outside the sanctuary allowed the updating of the workshop of Phidias. He was subsequently provided with safety by the state and exempted from public duties. Archaeological finds included tools for working gold and ivory, ivory chippings, precious stones and terracotta moulds. Sa biographie laisse la part belle aux zones d'ombre car nous n'avons pas assez de matériaux archéologiques pour la reconstituer pleinement. Phidias was the son of Charmides of Athens. ", The approximate date of the statue (the third quarter of the 5th century BC) was confirmed in the rediscovery (1954–58) of Phidias' workshop, approximately where Pausanias said the statue of Zeus was constructed. At Delphi he created a great group in bronze including the figures of Greek gods Apollo and Athena, several Attic heroes, and General Miltiades the Younger. , Pausanias also recounts that the statue was kept constantly coated with olive oil to counter the harmful effect on the ivory caused by the "marshiness" of the Altis grove. The ancient writers considered Phidias’s Zeus, completed about 430, for the Temple of Zeus at Olympia to be his masterpiece; this colossal statue is now considered to be one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.Zeus was seated on a throne, holding a Nike in his right hand and a sceptre in his left. "Zeus at Olympia."  Plutarch records that Phidias was imprisoned and died in jail.  Ancient critics take a very high view of the merits of Phidias. La première œuvre qui traduit sa maîtrise, selon toute vraisemblance, est l'Apollon de Cassel dont seules plusieurs copies d'époque romaine sont conservées dans divers musées en Europe. , The sculptor also was reputed to have immortalised Pantarkes, the winner of the boys' wrestling event at the eighty-sixth Olympiad who was said to have been his "beloved" (eromenos), by carving Pantarkes kalos ("Pantarkes is beautiful") into Zeus's little finger, and by placing a relief of the boy crowning himself at the feet of the statue.  But earlier loss or damage is implied by Lucian of Samosata in the later 2nd century, who referenced it in Timon: "they have laid hands on your person at Olympia, my lord High-Thunderer, and you had not the energy to wake the dogs or call in the neighbours; surely they might have come to the rescue and caught the fellows before they had finished packing up the loot. In, McWilliam, Janette. This site, of which pictures are given below, is to the west of the temple. " The Zeus was a chryselephantine sculpture, made with ivory and gold panels on a wooden substructure. The torso of Athena in the École des Beaux-Arts at Paris, which has lost its head, gives some idea of what the original statue may have looked like. The statue was a chryselephantine sculpture of ivory plates and gold panels on a wooden framework. The sanctuary at Olympia fell into disuse.  The discovery has enabled archaeologists to re-create the techniques used to make the statue and confirm its date.  Specifically, he was charged with shortchanging the amount of gold that was supposed to be used for the statue and keeping the extra for himself.