religious institutions in pakistan

So separate religious education requires extra teachers, which will create an additional burden on the education budget. Noddings, Nel. 2005. The basic idea of focusing on national cohesion and personal spirituality by ignoring sectarian differences, extremism, and sectarian violence may reflect individual understandings together with concerns about religions as forces for separation, coercion, and violence. These reflections clearly rejected students of other beliefs in Muslim classrooms. Federal Minister for Minorities Affairs, Shahbaz Bhatti. There is no need of specialists for teaching religion. Teachers pointed out the biases in religious textbooks that cause conflicts in students’ understanding of Islam. Please note that many of the page functionalities won't work as expected without javascript enabled. Education practices should be stated in the education policy. Dinham, Adam, and Martha Shaw. These conflicts can be best understood through. Only two teachers agreed that schools should have a specific policy for minority religious students so that they can take part in educational activities. In relation to the concept of religious education and its application in an educational setting, the academic study of religion should be explored from internal and external sides of the religious space. In another incident, Sharon, a young Christian high-school student, was humiliated and punished by his teacher on the first day of school for not wearing a uniform and was killed by his classmate on the second day for drinking water from the same glass as other Muslim students (. I am thankful to all those who voluntarily participated in this research. Behuria, Ashok K. 2008. The Exodus. Madrassa Education in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Even though religious literacy was appreciated by a few teachers, they believed that social behavior toward religion in Pakistan would not allow the teaching of religious literacy in schools: I personally like the idea of religious literacy, because it will help students to learn their religion and respect other religions as well. A mob led by university students attacked Mashal over false allegations made against him that he had published blasphemous content online. Teachers showed extensive commitment to the importance of religious education in schools, whereas only Sunni Islam was viewed as acceptable to be taught in schools. The behavior of attaching nationalism to religious beliefs was so dominant that most teachers considered Pakistan an Islamic country, which means religious education should include Islamic education only. “I think, the concept of religious literacy is very interesting, especially in societies that have witnessed violence, conflicts and politics over the issue of religion […] but I don’t think our society and many teachers (and also people) in our society agree to adopt it in education.”, This was a reflection of one primary school teacher about his perspective on the concept of religious literacy in classrooms in Pakistan. Even textbooks stay neutral and do not say anything against Shia, but there are many movements by Sunni Muslims that have killed thousands of Shia in Pakistan […] let me give you an example: One of my students told his classmates that his father told him that Shias are kafir (non-Muslim), and killings of kafir is an obligatory act in Islam. Second, the participants were contacted through personal relations, which may have created research bias in the findings of this research, as the sample may not have represented the opinions of the total population. They (religious people) can label anything good or bad, in favor of or against Islam, a good Muslim or a bad Muslim. In line with the mixture of teachers’ perceptions about contents and purpose, educational practices and their practical applications inside classrooms revealed a similar set of diverse observations. Ethical considerations have been followed in this study by assuring the privacy of the participants and confidentiality of the research data. Their religious education in school requires extra teachers, plus it may create conflict between religions because teaching their religion in our school will not be acceptable to teachers and parents. I have learnt it throughout my life, and I can teach it, even better than so-called specialists. There is lot of opposition from (some) national and international people to the contents of Jihad in textbooks due to recent violence. Raina, Ajay K. 2014. For example, Shia teachers mentioned the absence of Shia Islamic literature in textbooks. Despite participating voluntarily, the participants were from three major cities in one province with Punjabi ethnicity. The following themes were extracted from the teachers’ reflections. Research Institute of Educational Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China, Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019. Zia-ul-Haq’s regime is considered crucial in the history of Pakistan, during which curriculum textbooks were re-written to shape Pakistani identity in relation to Islamic values. The relationship between religious education and the structure of policy is fundamental to understanding the educational practices for teaching religious education as well as teaching other subjects with a firm belief in religion.

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