7. It is therefore a weak base, and tends to remain as the fluoride ion rather than generating a substantial amount of hydrogen fluoride. It can help prevent tooth decay, which is why it's added to many brands of toothpaste and, in some areas, to the water supply through a process called fluoridation. Its salts and minerals are important chemical reagents and industrial chemicals, mainly used in the production of hydrogen fluoride for fluorocarbons. Fluorine, in the form of fluoride, is considered to be a micronutrient for human health, necessary to prevent dental cavities, and to promote healthy bone growth. In the 1930s, researchers found that people who drank fluoride-containing drinking water were up to 2.3 times less likely to develop tooth decay. , Daily intakes of fluoride can vary significantly according to the various sources of exposure. With strong acids, it can be doubly protonated to give H2F+.  The EFSA reviewed safety evidence and set an adult UL at 7.0 mg/day (lower for children). , The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) refers to the collective set of information as Dietary Reference Values, with Population Reference Intake (PRI) instead of RDA, and Average Requirement instead of EAR. Surface water such as rivers or lakes generally contains between 0.01–0.3 ppm. The systematic name fluoride, the valid IUPAC name, is determined according to the additive nomenclature. , A large team of researchers, including Simon C. Jones of California Institute of Technology and Christopher J. Brooks of the Honda Research Institute, have come up with a liquid electrolyte that shuttles fluoride ions to and fro and demonstrated its use in a room-temperature, rechargeable FIB (Science 2018, DOI: 10.1126/science.aat7070). Dr Egan reported tooth discolouration in children living in Italy and observed dark spots on the teeth of these children in different ways. If drinking water contains fluoride and then brush regularly with fluoride toothpaste, the risk of decay is greatly reduced. . Decisions about adding fluoride to drinking water are made at the state or local level. Hydrofluoric acid has a variety of specialized applications, including its ability to dissolve glass. However, the name fluoride is also used in compositional IUPAC nomenclature which does not take the nature of bonding involved into account. Gaseous fluoride and other process waste byproducts have previously been allowed to be expelled through the factory smokestack New environmental regulation now require "scrubbers" atop of smokestacks to remove these toxic chemicals from escaping in the air. Your dentist or paediatrician can tell you how good fluoride is for your family, so consult with them. For comparison, chloride concentration in seawater is about 19 g/L. Fluoride is naturally present at low concentration in most fresh and saltwater sources, as well as in rainwater, particularly in urban areas. C.A.  Maps are available of locations of potential problematic wells. Almost all water contains some fluoride, but usually not enough to prevent tooth decay. In late 2016 imidazolium fluoride was synthesized that is the closest approximation of a thermodynamically stable and structurally characterized example of a "naked" fluoride source in an aprotic solvent (acetonitrile). A review of the evidence", "Fluoride Free Toothpaste – Fluoride (Finally!)  In areas where water is fluoridated this can be expected to be a significant source of fluoride, however fluoride is also naturally present in virtually all foods and beverages at a wide range of concentrations. If drinking water contains fluoride and then brush regularly with fluoride toothpaste, the risk of decay is greatly reduced. Hydrogen fluoride is itself an example of a non-systematic name of this nature. Upon treatment with a standard acid, fluoride salts convert to hydrogen fluoride and metal salts. The AI for men is 4.0 mg/day. Naked fluoride is a strong Lewis base, and a powerful nucleophile. The form usually used for artificially fluoridating water is Hydrofluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) which combines fluorine and hydrogen with silicon. , Soluble fluoride salts, of which sodium fluoride is the most common, are toxic, and have resulted in both accidental and self-inflicted deaths from acute poisoning.
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